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I-A vast number of scientists agree that the predationof nature started with the industrial age and was facilitated by contemporaryglobalization (deforestation of forests and jungles, pollution of the sea,corruption of the land by mining waste, of space with space debris, emergenceof holes in the ozone layer, darkening of our skies by industrial smog,global warming with lysis of glaciers, extinction of certain animal species),has changed nature, making it inhospitable. So, soon after theCovid-19 pandemic started, it was easy to see countless dolphins, pelicans andother birds, on the coasts of quarantined countries, a sign of the ongoingmisfortune (they came for food and to recover their inheritances). It is that, for thousandsof years, the corporality of animals and the structure of vegetables was thefirst defensive mattress against fierce viral attacks. The viruses attacked theanimals that populated the earth before humans their complex bodies allowed them to reproduce. After aprolonged fight, the animals generated their own defenses and varied naturalimmune strategies, establishing a mutually beneficial virus-animal coexistence.When time passed, the viruses realized that the animals were decimated andcornered, they opted for the obvious: to replace animals   withthe increasingly numerous humans, lately living in metropolises with highpopulation density. While SARS (2002) and MERS(2012) were exploratory coronaviruses, Covid-19, like others in progress, withmore confidence and better strategies are here to stay. II-In the face of the Covid-19 pandemic and others tocome, obvious proposals emerge: a) The first is to convene a global forum inwhich, at the same time that we discuss preventive proposals to improve globalhuman health, we also take into account the entire health of planet Earth,which we should see as a properly shared, distributed and cared for whole (Gaiahypothesis), in which all human activities should be seen in a different,healthier, more ecological way, starting with mass wind and solar energy,instead of oil-derived pollutants, preserving world forests and jungles,promote democratic coexistence of all human races and minority groups,compromise and harmony with all plant animal species, but also with bacteriaand viruses, in such a way that all beings alive -not only humans- will be theend and not the means. III. Preventing and fighting the pandemics to come alsoimplies giving answers to unresolved questions. Regarding viruses: a) Why areviruses selectively attracted to cellular genomes? What does it mean for avirus's RNA to perfectly match the DNA of a cell and reproduce? A phenomenonthat happens to parts that were once a whole. b) Where do viruses come from?Are they incomplete remains of dead animals or vegetables? Recycled paleofossils?If so, the cremation of all living dead beings could be a solution. c) Thepresence of a genome within viruses makes them computable, that is,predictable, with respect to their actions. If so, then the number of itspotential mutations and even the severity of its infectivity could becalculated. d) The permanence of viruses in the animal and human genome helpedto evolve the latter? Perhaps, by finding answers to these questions, we cantake leaps and bounds in this regard and not just be relying on vaccines. Weneed scientific dissertations and reflections, with perspective.

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Bad controlled diabetesand brain

In some way, the type offood eaten by humans is related to the functions of our organs, our general corporalityand our state of mind. According to the Australian researcher Felice Jacka,, the children (1 1/2-5 years), of pregnant women who consumed junk food(high fat and abundant sugar),  turnedout to be more aggressive, prone to tantrums and at the same time more fearful.However, the type of food eaten is not only related to the mentioned changes.Recently, the researcher Lilianne R. Mujica-Parodi (Stony BrooksUniversityy/Lab for Computational Neurodiagnostics) and collaborators, investigated whether the type of  ingested diet was capable of optimallymaintaining the functionality of the brain neural networks, improving neuralfunctional communication, when the dietary fuel (usually glucose) is exchangedfor ketones, being recognized  eversince: the optimal functionality of neural networks, as a biomarker of brainaging. Previous studies have shown that the destabilization of the brain neuralnetworks conditions a decrease in brain activity and cognitive acuity, effectbeing noted from the age of 47, with more rapid destabilization from the age of60. DOI: https: // / S2213-8587 (13) 70192-X. In the case of type 2 diabetics (DM2), with insulinresistance, the possibility has been raised that glucose elevation (poorlycontrolled), is an early risk factor for dementia in adulthood due to rapiddecrease in memory, reasoning and cognition doi: 10.1212 / WNL.0b013e3181f25f06, so some researchers think that dementia might evenbe a metabolic disease. To demonstrate  the influence of diet type on optimalmaintenance of the functionality of brain neural networks required usinglarge-scale functional magnetic resonance datasets and scanning a cohortprovided with a standard diet, night fast, and ketogenic diet and anotherindependent cohort, with overnight fasting before and after administration ofan exogenous bolus of ketone ester (D-β-hydroxybutyrate), equal in calories to that provided by a type of diet based   inglucose. In this study, the functionality of human brain neural networks wasdestabilized by glucose and stabilized by ketone, regardless of whether ketosiswas achieved with a ketogenic diet or exogenous ketone esters, the resultssuggesting that destabilization of neural networks  may reflect early signs of hypometabolismassociated with dementia due to persistent glucose elevation, as occurs inuncontrolled DM2, indicating that the destabilization of neural networks couldbe an adaptive response of the brain in order to conserve energy in the face ofscarcity of resources. This study clarifies how diet influences brain aging,explaining how insulin resistance in poorly controlled diabetics acceleratesthe progression of cognitive decline as people age. A deterioration possiblyrelated to hypometabolism of brain glucose, reversed by another type ofketone-based diet, which by increasing the available energy, prevent earlybrain aging. Young people who eat mainly junk food could be another group ofbeneficiaries, provided they switch to diets containing polyunsaturated fattyacids: fat from certain fish, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, etc.

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After reviewing several papers, watching nationaland international videoconferences and scrutinizing ideas related to the clinicand treatment of the Covid-19 epidemic, we were left with some clear things,which in descending order of importance are: 1) Epidemiologicalmeasures. 2) Immunity: anti-virus vaccines, infusion of hyperimmuneplasmas. of convalescent human to certain coronavirus infected people.  3) Knowledge (even scarce) of thestructure and function of viruses 4) Molecular tests and mathematicalcalculations 5) Investigations carried out in the same field of events.We will comment on the first 2 items. I) Knowing that viral pandemicsare directly related to the increase in population density ( -decrease it, is essential- although the effectiveness of this measurevaries according to the economic and educational condition of each country. Indeveloping nations such as Peru, the success of social confinement is hamperedby the aforementioned inequalities, especially by the urgent daily economicneeds. Although in Peru, a national health emergency law was established early ( /), that established socialisolation, its compliance was strictly observed in certain districts of Limaand the rest of the country, more economically fluent. These, having housed the first imported cases, showed a moderate rise inthe epidemiological curve, which has currently slowed down, anticipating thatthis first group would begin to travel from the descending part of the curvesince mid-June. The same is not happening in the poorest and most denselypopulated districts of Lima and some departments of Peru (70% of the Peruvianpopulation), whose cases began to increase 3 weeks after those of the first group,originating because of the above :a steepening and prolongation of theascending part of the curve that, as some  mathematicians explain, is destined to undergoa stop in the coming weeks, and after crossing the plateau, begin a generaldecline, not without some obstacles generated in markets (https: // management. pe /peru / politics / coronavirus-peru-10-markets-in-lima-identified-as-foci-of-contagion-of-covid-19-nndc-news/), buses, pharmacies, building elevators multi-family,etc). II) Immunity: a) Taking into account that the Covid-19virus produces an asymptomatic clinical course in 80% of those infected ( (usually under 50 years), it is concluded that this process -luck ofnatural selection- tolerates the strongest and eliminates the weakest.Rethinking the positive aspects of the aforementioned process has applicationsin the current pandemic - which will be repeated in the coming years – being thefundamental thing  to ensure that ourimmune system adapts to that of the virus, establishing a  coexistence human-virus,  subject to a single rule, except forresponsibilities to the virus, if our immune system is weakened b) Takinginto account  that prophylactic andtherapeutic medical treatment lacks consensus and is mostly symptomatic, at themoment the most solid therapy against coronavirus is the creation of a vaccine  under the rules of acquired immunity. Vaccineproduction currently suffers from two problems: delay in producing it andconsidering that efficacy of  dead orattenuated  cannot be predicted withcertainty. According to the expert: Christine Stabell Benn, the use of live antigens, banned by the WHO, give protection for 15years and are 96% effective. In our country a vaccine is being produced withprotein extracts from the virus crown (dead virus)
c) Type of problems that induces us to locate the infusion of hyperimmuneplasma from convalescent humans: secondly, by being able to reverse theseverity of the viral symptom-symptomatology, in 24 hours. Any level IIIhospital is able to prepare this plasma using a simple method, provided youhave informed consent, the blood fractionation machine and a trainedhematologist or pathologist. d) On the other hand, some scientists argue that attenuated BCGvaccination provides protection not only against tuberculosis but also againstviruses, fungi and some types of cancer. e) We need to know more aboutthe virus. For now and according to Luc Montagnier, Nobel Prize in Medicine, some antigenic sequences of the current coronavirushave been artificially replaced by others containing HIV RNA, supposedly madein a laboratory of China, processes that would have endowed the coronaviruswith a greater infectivity. Fortunately and according to Montagnier himself, natureonly supports a certain order where this bizarre virus does not fit, so theself-elimination of HIV sequences, are almost certain, making the virus less  aggressive, thereby ending the pandemic.

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Wednesday, May 06, 2020



Although the task of successfully coping with thevirus causing the Covid-19 pandemic, exhibits several scenarios. One importantarea is to continue to unravel the biology of coronaviruses. 1) We subscribe  this potential definition of viruses:proto-life nanostructures, containing glycans (sugars) and peptides or proteinswith special conformations: semi-helices (counterparts of DNA or RNA), subjectto the laws of physics and chemistry, inactive in the environment, but capableof becoming reproductively active, when under certain contexts,  are conditioned to couple with theircounterparts: DNA or RNA semi-helices, located inside human, animal or plantcells, where they self-replicate using the capacities of the respectivegenomes. 2) It is important  to discoverthe reasons that drive the virus to enter the human respiratory tract, usuallywithout damaging it by settling in the pulmonary alveoli: a) because the cellsof the immune system in these areas are late to generate an immune response orbecause the virus by knowing the responses of the immune system (thanks toprevious coronavirus experiences), hides or eliminates its vulnerable points,making it invisible to the immune attack. b) It is important  also to know the energetic foundations of theviral movements. Lacking energy generation pathways and mitochondria, the viruswould seek to use the  energy generatedby electron gain or loss feasible to occur during iron oxidation or thatgenerated by the conformational change of heme group porphyrins during ironoxidation that changes from ferrous to ferric, when venous blood passes throughthe periphery of the alveoli trying to oxygenate itself as much as possible.One or another thing, it would be happening by judging the report of Jordana Cepelewicz (Staff Writer, Quantamagazine),who recounts the recent investigations of various teams of researchers,focused on the complex and changing structures of glycans (sugars of thevirus), identified as tree covers in charge of hiding and protecting vulnerableparts of the polypeptide or protein section inserted and folded inside theviral structure. A protective shield (See Max Crispin), against the attack ofthe immune system (See Alexandra C. Walls), to the point of currently consideringthat a vaccine directed against only the peptide or protein fraction would notbe advantageous. rendering the vaccine ineffective. While viral proteins orpeptides assemble as counterparts to known templates, glycans do not need knowntemplates, as they potentially have more configurations than DNA and RNA. Fornow, these glycans are known to play a role in interactions with othermolecules and cells, activating, regulating and directing the immune response,helping proteins to fold properly, promoting the adequacy of cell surfacereceptors to their needs, role in determining the human blood type, beinginvolved in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc. Any vaccine against HIVrequires first to think about its glycans, because this virus tends to cover itself with humanglycans that would serve to bypass the immune system. Consider that antibodiesusually attack proteins, not sugars, so any coronavirus vaccine should considerglycans to promote an adequate immune response.

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Thursday, April 23, 2020


1-Asked about the reasons for medical consultations of patientscritically affected by Covid-19, who survived after being hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the Americancardiologist: Harlan Krumholz (Yale, University), answered to -The Los AngelesTimes (10.04.20), that the signs and symptoms of convalescents did notcorrespond to a disease confined to the respiratory system, but rather to asevere bodily injury induced by a severe hypoxemia that included cardiac,liver, kidney, brain, endocrine and hematopoietic complications. 2-Afterobserving Peruvians and Ecuadorians die suddenly in the streets, we think thesame. Although the attack begins in the respiratory sphere, at a certain pointthe viral attack becomes systemic very quickly. Appreciation supported by areport from The Sun newspaper (20.04.20), where it is reported that two, 42-year-oldChinese doctors, who after having been critically ill by Covid-19, in Wuhansince 18.01.20, received life support with: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation:ECMO: (extracorporeal blood oxygenation, replacing the heart and lung). Duringconvalescence, some systemic effects became more visible: extensive darkeningof the skin in exposed areas, attributed to viral liver damage or side effectsof some medication. Convalescent physicians say they will improve as theirlivers self-repair, condition that we think need to rule out a acquiredhemochromatosis, induced by difficulties in iron metabolism, requiring a liverbiopsy and dosing of serum iron, transport capacity. iron, ferritin, etc. 3) A rapid systemic bodily attack associated with an increase in dyspneashould have as a logic allied to the blood stream. In the previous post, wediscussed the possible pathogenesis induced by Covid-19, based on thetheoretical bioinformatics work of Chinese researchers Wenzhong Liu and HualanLi (Sichuan University): Covid-19: Attacks the 1-Beta Chain of Hemoglobin andcaptures the Porphyrin to Inhibit Human Heme Metabolism, ChemRxiv. Preprint, who based on virus homologies with certain structural characteristics of thehuman heme, suppose an initial anchorage of viral glycoproteins to theporphyrins that contain the heme, forcing the uncoupling of ferrous iron, whichbeing  spilled into the bloodstream wouldprevent the transport of O2  and CO2, generated  adverse systemic effects and a cytokine storm,in response. 4) Now, another article, many conferences, testimonies ofbenefited people and the visualization -with a phase contrast microscope- ofthe reversal of agglutinated methemoglobinemic blood to oxygenated blood, usingchlorine dioxide (ClO2), the same that achieves a fast increasing  O2 saturation demonstrated bygasometry, reversing the chemical-structural damage induced by Covid-19 toporphyrins. That is the theory of the German biophysicist Andreas Kalcker: who proposes the use of Cl dioxide (ClO2), in aqueous or intravenousform at a pH of 7.4, at concentrations of 50 ppm, to reverse the hypoxemiceffects of Covid-19. By preventing ClO2 from disrupting porphyrins,it would also be shown that the viral attack is not focused on the lungs, but itis directed against the beta  chain ofHb, inducing systemic effects that limit the normal transport of 02and CO2, generating chemical pneumonitis causing ground glass lungimages, when free iron is poured into the blood, affecting  the liver. In a minefield where what is knownis little, we communicate this theory, associated with some facts that needfurther verification. It would be very useful to perform   inpatients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit -who are being helped by mechanical ventilators- : liver biopsies anddose plasma pyrroles, bilirubins, reticulocytes, transaminases, iron, EPO,transferrin, ferritin, and methemoglobin. Based on the above, we believe thatthe most suitable method to treat Covid-19 hypoxemia is extracorporealoxygenation (ECMO), which is more effective than mechanical ventilators.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020


Covid-19, facts 

While we wait for the Covid-19 RNA vaccine, themedical treatment for the most severe viral stage: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome(ARDS), associated with high mortality rates in older adults or in people whohave chronic diseases (diabetes, obesity, arterial hypertension) or immunedeficiencies lacks guaranteed efficacy, which has to do with gaps regarding: I)Coronavirus and its raison d'être II) Postmortem pathological findings and bodyand lung-heart axis pathogenesis. III) Reasons of increasing transmissibility(R0), of Covid-19 and, IV) Immunological characteristics ofsurvivors and deceased due to ARDS.  Regardingthe first, the biologist Laura Alche (Buenos Aires University, 2017),  affirms that, when the viruses are installed  in the environment, they have not the abilityto self-reproduce so, they are not alive. -If they are dead, why to carry outenvironmental disinfection campaigns? - For his part, the virologist VincentRacaniello (Columbia University, 2019),, argues that when the viruses enter an organism andreproduce, using the host genome they acquire the status of living entities,through an evolutionary process, which will continue with mutations tending tosettle the virus in our genomes, which currently carry 8% of transposons andothers viral remains. When  benefits weremutual for viruses, animals and humans, they coexisted properly for millions ofyears, until  the beginning of theindustrial age, when a  massive environmentaldisruption human-induced,  forced virusesthat lived in peace with wild animals to invade human beds. For this reason, in this quarantine, many animals have temporarilyrecovered their properties in different parts of the world : Now that worldwide human viral pandemics are favored by high humanpopulation densities, we ask ourselves: What is special about lung alveoli toattract the virus and trigger poor alveolar function there? Is there a vitalfactor that encourages its massive replication? The reasonable thing is that viruseslook for the energy contained in the porphyrins, O2 or perhaps the iron. Weneed to measure pyrroles and plasma iron in critically ill patients and performautopsies or at least lung and heart biopsies from deceased patients. Althoughin this regard, there are 4 somewhat biased autopsies (African Americans, 2with diabetes and high blood pressure), these matter for the exquisite natureof their performance: SE. Fox, A Akmatbekov, JL. Harbert et al. “ Pulmonary andCardiac Pathology in Covid-19: The First Autopsy Series from New Orleans”-medRxiv preprint.,  being observed: Lungs:680 to  1030 g (N: 583 +/- 216), extremeright ventricular dilatation, bilateral pulmonary edema and parcel hemorrhages,pulmonary arteries free of thromboemboli, bronchi flooded by thick white mucus,absence of signs of fungal, bacterial or inflammatory infection, cardiomegaly,no thrombi in large vessels. Microscopy: extensive alveolar damage,hyaline membranes, alveolar hemorrhages, fibrin thrombi and megakaryocytesinside the capillaries. In damaged alveoli: cytopathic effects in distendedpneumocytes, intracytoplasmic RNA, neutrophil degeneration, being argued   inmedical journals that what was reported corresponds to overflows of a cytokinestorm, taking as reference the pathogenesis of ARDS proposed by MA Matthay andRL Zeman (Annu Rev Pathol. 2011; 28; 6: 147–163). doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-011110-130158, mostlyreferred to patients who died of pneumonia or infectious sepsis. The reflexiveaspect of ARDS induced by the current coronavirus is that it settles in veryquickly, as in the case of patients who, walking on the streets of Peru andEcuador, stopped suddenly, shortly after being struck down and dying:,Interesting facts  in the treatmentof coronavirus are  1) The worldwide use of  hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a drug with a broadanti-inflammatory effect in Lupus Erythematosus  which   blocks the  endo and exocytosis stages (viral entry andexit from the cell). 2) A theory  held byWenzhong Liu and Hualan Li (Sichuan University): Covid-19: Attacks the 1-BetaChain of Hemoglobin and captures the Porphyrin to Inhibit Human HemeMetabolism, ChemRxiv. Preprint. hypothesizesthat the ORF8 protein and viral surface glycoproteins bind to porphyrin, while  structural viral proteins: orf1ab, ORF10 andORF3a attack the heme in the region:  1-beta Hb, preventing the binding of He withporphyrin, promoting that  less Hb, transport  O2 and Co2, intoxicating lung cells andtriggering an intense inflammatory storm causing pulmonary ground glass imageswith the possibility to reverse this effect with HCQ or; reports that BCGprotects against TB and other viral and parasitic diseases. Biering-S?rensen S,Aaby P, Lund N, et al. Early BCG-Denmark and Neonatal Mortality Among InfantsWeighing <2500 1183-1190.="" 1="" 2017="" 65="" a="" b="" clin="" controlled="" dis.="" g:="" infect="" oct="" randomized="" trial.="">doi: 10.1093/cid/cix525.

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020



In 2014: JohnO'Keefe (British-American), Edvard Moser and May Britt-Moser (both Norwegian),shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology, for the discovery of neuronsconstituents of a positioning system (GPS cells), located in the humancerebral hippocampus. For those who thought that this finding only served toguide us spatially externally and internally, the recent discovery ofadditional functions of these cells means that we are just at the beginning ofa cognitive revolution of cyclopean proportions, of knowing the process ofgenerating hypotheses  very close to  the same human thought. The study wasconducted at the University of California, San Francisco by Loren Frank:1-Frank and his team made trained   rats run  by the central parts of W-shaped labyrinths,while other researchers monitored their positional neurons (mappers of thelocation of the rat). 2-When the rats were about to reach the other endof the central part, where they would decide which place to turn (right orleft), the researchers noticed that the teta brain rhythm coincided with  the firing of  positional neurons, warning that as long asthe rat did not decide which direction to turn, the position cells for bothtrajectories continued to fire  simultaneously in the central arm of thelabyrinth. 3-As the rat approached the point where it should changedirection, it was expected that position neurons would continue to befiring   simultaneously in events called theta cycles. 4-Insteadand, until the rat turned, the position cells for each trajectory no longer fired   simultaneously,but in the form of alternate theta cycles. According to Frank and his team, thesequences of firing   of 125-milliseconds seemed to generatedifferent brain hypotheses about the immediate future of the rats in acontinuous, consistent and incredibly regular way, offering the animals,different future hypothetical scenarios, which allowed them  to weigh quickly and flexibly  the different scenarios, choosing the bestoption with opportunities to change options and even go back, useful  option to confront natural predators. ForFrank, coding hypotheses is an explicit representation of the thinking andtheta cycles: fundamental computational units, which the hippocampus uses tochoose mostly abstract things, supported by previous experiences, adding that cyclical firing  of  position cells imply, the development ofcognitive faculties: imagination, planning and decision- making processes.

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