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Printing and Printers info

Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing.

The development of printing was preceded by the use of cylinder seals in Mesopotamia developed in 3500 BC, and other related stamp seals. The earliest form of printing was woodblock printing, with existing examples from China dating to before 220 AD[1] and Egypt to the 4th century. Later developments in printing include the movable type, first developed by Bi Sheng in China,[2] and the printing press, a more efficient printing process developed by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century.[3]

Contents

[hide]

[edit] History

[edit] Woodblock printing

Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns that was used widely throughout East Asia. It originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 AD, and from Roman Egypt to the 4th century.

[edit] In East Asia

The intricate frontispiece of the Diamond Sutra from Tang Dynasty China, 868 AD (British Museum)

The earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China and are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han dynasty (before 220 AD), and the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper appeared in the mid-7th century in China.

By the 9th century printing on paper had taken off, with the first extant complete printed book, the Diamond Sutra in 868, and by the 10th century, 400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed and the Confucian classics. A skilled printer could print up to 2,000 double-page sheets per day.[4]

Printing spread early to Korea and Japan who also used Chinese logograms but the techniques were also used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts. However, unlike the diffusion of paper, printing techniques never spread to the Islamic world.[5]

[edit] In the Middle East

Woodblock printing on cloth appeared in Roman Egypt by the 4th century. Block printing, called tarsh in Arabic was developed in Arabic Egypt during the 9th-10th centuries, mostly for prayers and amulets. There is some evidence to suggest that the print blocks were made from non-wood materials, possibly tin, lead, or clay. However, the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had very little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world, initially for fabric, the technique of metal block printing remained unknown in Europe. Block printing later went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China.[6]

[edit] In Europe

Woodcut print dated 1423 of St Christopher from Buxheim on the Upper Rhine

Block printing first came to Christian Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could be quite large and elaborate, and when paper became relatively easily available, around 1400, the medium transferred very quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints were produced in very large numbers from about 1425 onwards.

Around the mid-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images, usually carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type. These were all short heavily illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440 and 1460.[7]

[edit] Movable type printing

copperplate of 1215-1216 5000 cash paper money with 10 bronze movable types
Jikji, "Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Son Masters" from Korea, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris.

Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than hand copying or block printing.

Around 1040, the first known movable type system was created in China by Bi Sheng out of porcelain.[2] Sheng used clay type, which broke easily, but Wang Zhen later carved a more durable type from wood by 1298 CE, and developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient. However, the main method in use there remained woodblock printing.

Copper movable type printing was originated in China, at the beginning of 12th century. It was used in large scale printing of paper money issued by the North Song dynasty. A paper money copper plate of Jin dynasty casted in 1215-1216 in the collection of Luo Zhenyu reproduced in his book Pictorial Paper Money of the Four Dynasties, 1914, shows two signatures, one called ziliao(趼蹋 at right hand side), the other called zihao(趼 at the left side) for the purpose of preventing contefeit; at the left side, over the ziliao there is a small character printed with moveable copper type, while over the zihao there is a square hollow, apparently the embedded copper metal type was lost. The two anti conterfeit characters were selected from a set of 1000 character bronze moveable types casted according to the Thousand Character Classic, providing 499500 unique signatures. Besides these two signatures, there are eight other bronze movable types for the officers of currency bureau, head of printing house, head of safe keeping office etc. Song dynasty copper plate printed paper money with up to ten bronze movable types was issued in large scale since early 12th century, hence metal movable type printing was invented in Song dynasty no later than early 12th century[8]

Korean moveable metal typeset form, used to print ???? in 1447.

But around 1230, Koreans invented a metal type movable printing. The Jikji, published in 1377, is the earliest known metal printed book. Type-casting was used, adapted from the method of casting coins. The character was cut in beech wood, which was then pressed into a soft clay to form a mould and bronze poured into the mould and the type was finally polished.[9]

Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced what is regarded as an invention of movable type in Europe (see printing press), along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin and antimony 每 the same components still used today.[10]

A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick.

[edit] The printing press

Johannes Gutenberg's work on the printing press began in approximately 1436 when he partnered with Andreas Dritzehen 〞 a man he had previously instructed in gem-cutting〞and Andreas Heilmann, owner of a paper mill.[11] It was not until a 1439 lawsuit against Gutenberg that official record exists; witnesses testimony discussed type, an inventory of metals (including lead) and his type mold.[11]

Compared to woodblock printing, movable type page setting and printing using a press was faster and more durable. The metal type pieces were sturdier and the lettering more uniform, leading to typography and fonts. The high quality and relatively low price of the Gutenberg Bible (1455) established the superiority of movable type, and printing presses rapidly spread across Europe, leading up to the Renaissance, and later all around the world. Today, practically all movable type printing ultimately derives from Gutenberg's movable type printing, which is often regarded as the most important invention of the second millennium.[12]

[edit] Rotary printing press

The rotary printing press was invented by Richard March Hoe in 1843. It uses impressions curved around a cylinder to print on long continuous rolls of paper or other substrates. Rotary drum printing was later significantly improved by William Bullock.

[edit] Modern printing technology

The folder of newspaper web offset printing press.

Across the world, over 45 trillion pages (2005 figure) are printed annually.[13] In 2006 there were approximately 30,700 printing companies in the United States, accounting for $112 billion, according to the 2006 U.S. Industry & Market Outlook by Barnes Reports. Print jobs that move through the Internet made up 12.5% of the total U.S. printing market last year, according to research firm InfoTrend/CAP Ventures.

[edit] Offset press

Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a film of water, keeping the non-printing areas ink-free.

Currently, most books and newspapers are printed using the technique of offset lithography. Other common techniques include:

  • flexography used for packaging, labels, newspapers.
  • hot wax dye transfer
  • inkjet used typically to print a small number of books or packaging, and also to print a variety of materials from high quality papers simulate offset printing, to floor tiles; Inkjet is also used to apply mailing addresses to direct mail pieces.
  • laser printing mainly used in offices and for transactional printing (bills, bank documents). Laser printing is commonly used by direct mail companies to create variable data letters or coupons, for example.
  • pad printing popular for its unique ability to print on complex 3-dimensional surfaces.
  • relief print, (mainly used for catalogues).
  • rotogravure mainly used for magazines and packaging.
  • screen-printing from T-shirts to floor tiles.

[edit] Gravure

Gravure printing is an intaglio printing technique, where the image to be printed is made up of small depressions in the surface of the printing plate. The cells are filled with ink and the excess is scraped off the surface with a doctor blade, then a rubber-covered roller presses paper onto the surface of the plate and into contact with the ink in the cells. The printing plates are usually made from copper and may be produced by digital engraving or laser etching.

Gravure printing is used for long, high-quality print runs such as magazines, mail-order catalogues, packaging, and printing onto fabric and wallpaper. It is also used for printing postage stamps and decorative plastic laminates, such as kitchen worktops.

[edit] Impact of the invention of printing

[edit] Religious impact

Samuel Hartlib, who was exiled in Britain and enthusiastic about social and cultural reforms, wrote in 1641 that "the art of printing will so spread knowledge that the common people, knowing their own rights and liberties, will not be governed by way of oppression".[14] Both churchmen and governments were concerned that print allowed readers, eventually including those from all classes of society, to study religious texts and politically sensitive issues by themselves, instead of having their thinking mediated by the religious and political authorities.[citation needed]

It took a long time for print to penetrate Russia and the Orthodox Christian world, a region (including modern Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) where reading ability was largely restricted to the clergy. In 1564, a White Russian brought a press to Moscow, and soon after that his workshop was destroyed by a mob.

In the Muslim world, printing, especially in Arabic or Turkish, was strongly opposed throughout the early modern period, though printing in Hebrew was sometimes permitted.[citation needed] Muslim countries have been regarded as a barrier to the passage of printing from China to the West. According to an imperial ambassador to Istanbul in the middle of the sixteenth century, it was a sin for the Turks to print religious books. In 1515, Sultan Selim I issued a decree under which the practice of printing would be punishable by death[citation needed]. At the end of the century, Sultan Murad III permitted the sale of non-religious printed books in Arabic characters, yet the majority were imported from Italy.

Jews were banned from German printing guilds; as a result Hebrew printing sprang up in Italy, beginning in 1470 in Rome, then spreading to other cities including Bari, Pisa, Livorno and Mantuba. Local rulers had the authority to grant or revoke licenses to publish Hebrew books,[15] and many of those printed during this period carry the words 'con licenza de superiori' (indicating their printing having been licensed by the censor) on their title pages.

It was thought that the introduction of the printing medium 'would strengthen religion and enhance the power of monarchs.'[16] The majority of books were of a religious nature, with the church and crown regulating the content. The consequences of printing 'wrong' material were extreme. Meyrowitz[16] used the example of William Carter who in 1584 printed a pro-Catholic pamphlet in Protestant-dominated England. The consequence of his action was hanging.

The widespread distribution of the Bible 'had a revolutionary impact, because it decreased the power of the Catholic Church as the prime possessor and interpretor of God's word.'[16]

[edit] Social impact

Print gave a broader range of readers access to knowledge and enabled later generations to build on the intellectual achievements of earlier ones. Print, according to Acton in his lecture On the Study of History (1895), gave "assurance that the work of the Renaissance would last, that what was written would be accessible to all, that such an occultation of knowledge and ideas as had depressed the Middle Ages would never recur, that not an idea would be lost".[14]

Print was instrumental in changing the nature of reading within society.

Elizabeth Eisenstein identifies two long term effects of the invention of printing. She claims that print created a sustained and uniform reference for knowledge as well as allowing for comparison between incompatible views. (Eisenstein in Briggs and Burke, 2002: p21)

Asa Briggs and Peter Burke identify five kinds of reading that developed in relation to the introduction of print:

  1. Critical reading: due to the fact that texts finally became accessible to the general population, critical reading emerged because people were given the option to form their own opinions on texts.
  2. Dangerous Reading: reading was seen as a dangerous pursuit because it was considered rebellious and unsociable. This was especially in the case of women because reading could stir up dangerous emotions like love. There was also the concern that if women could read, they could read love notes.
  3. Creative reading: Printing allowed people to read texts and interpret them creatively, often in very different ways than the author intended.
  4. Extensive Reading: Print allowed for a wide range of texts to become available, thus, previous methods of intensive reading of texts from start to finish, began to change. With texts being readily available, people began reading on particular topics or chapters, allowing for much more extensive reading on a wider range of topics.
  5. Private reading: This is linked to the rise of individualism. Before print, reading was often a group event, where one person would read to a group of people. With print, literacy rose as did availability of texts, thus reading became a solitary pursuit.

"While the invention of printing has been discussed conventionally in terms of its value for spreading ideas, its even greater contribution is its furthering of the long-developing shift in the relationship between space and discourse".[14]

The proliferation of media that Ong is discussing in relation to the introduction of the printing press, to the death of an oral culture and that this new culture had more of an emphasis on the visual rather than in an auditory medium. As such the printing press gave birth to a more accessible and widely available source of knowledge in the sense that it broke down the boundaries between the possessors of knowledge and the masses. The narrative or discourse now existed in what would become indirectly through time, the global village.

The invention of printing also changed the occupational structure of European cities. Printers emerged as a new group of artisans for whom literacy was essential, although the much more labour-intensive occupation of the scribe naturally declined. Proof-correcting arose as a new occupation, while a rise in the amount of booksellers and librarians naturally followed the explosion in the numbers of books.

[edit] Comparison of printing methods

Comparison of printing methods[17]
printing process妈妈的朋友9transfer method∣pressure applied∣drop size∣dynamic viscosity∣thickness of ink on substrate∣notescost-effective run length∣
Offset printingrollers1 MPa40每100 Pa·s0.5每1.5 µmhigh print quality>5,000 (A3 trim size, sheet-fed)[18]

>30,000 (A3 trim size, web-fed)[18]

Rotogravurerollers3 MPa0.05每0.2 Pa·s0.8每8 µmthick ink layers possible, excellent image reproduction, edges of letters and lines are jagged[19]>500,000[19]
Flexographyrollers0.3 MPa0.05每0.5 Pa·s0.8每2.5 µmmoderate quality
Letterpress printingplaten10 MPa50每150 Pa·s0.5每1.5 µmslow drying
Screen-printingpressing ink through holes in screen<12 µmversatile method, low quality
Electrophotographyelectrostatics5每10 µmthick ink
Inkjet printerthermal5每30 pl1每5 Pa·s<0.5 µmspecial paper required to reduce bleeding<350 (A3 trim size)[18]
Inkjet printerpiezoelectric4每30 pl5每20 Pa·s<0.5 µmspecial paper required to reduce bleeding<350 (A3 trim size)[18]
Inkjet printercontinuous5每100 pl1每5 Pa·s<0.5 µmspecial paper required to reduce bleeding<350 (A3 trim size)[18]

[edit] Digital printing

Digital printing accounts for approximately 9% of the 45 trillion pages printed annually (2005 figure) around the world.[13]

Printing at home or in an office or engineering environment is subdivided into:

  • small format (up to ledger size paper sheets), as used in business offices and libraries
  • wide format (up to 3' or 914mm wide rolls of paper), as used in drafting and design establishments.

Some of the more common printing technologies are:

  • blueprint〞and related chemical technologies.
  • daisy wheel〞where pre-formed characters are applied individually.
  • dot-matrix〞which produces arbitrary patterns of dots with an array of printing studs.
  • line printing〞where pre-formed characters are applied to the paper by lines.
  • heat transfer〞like early fax machines or modern receipt printers that apply heat to special paper, which turns black to form the printed image.
  • inkjet〞including bubble-jet〞where ink is sprayed onto the paper to create the desired image.
  • electrophotography〞where toner is attracted to a charged image and then developed.
  • laser〞a type of xerography where the charged image is written pixel by pixel by a laser.
  • solid ink printer〞where cubes of ink are melted to make ink or liquid toner.

Vendors typically stress the total cost to operate the equipment, involving complex calculations that include all cost factors involved in the operation as well as the capital equipment costs, amortization, etc. For the most part, toner systems beat inkjet in the long run, whereas inkjets are less expensive in the initial purchase price.

Professional digital printing (using toner) primarily uses an electrical charge to transfer toner or liquid ink to the substrate it is printed on. Digital print quality has steadily improved from early color and black & white copiers to sophisticated colour digital presses like the Xerox iGen3, the Kodak Nexpress, the HP Indigo Digital Press series and the InfoPrint 5000. The iGen3 and Nexpress use toner particles and the Indigo uses liquid ink. The InfoPrint 5000 is a full-color, continuous forms inkjet drop-on-demand printing system. All handle variable data and rival offset in quality. Digital offset presses are also called direct imaging presses, although these presses can receive computer files and automatically turn them into print-ready plates, they cannot insert variable data.

Small press and fanzines generally use digital printing. Prior to the introduction of cheap photocopying the use of machines such as the spirit duplicator, hectograph, and mimeograph was common.

[edit] See also

Notifying Visitors of Site Enhancements

Another idea for my home page's text is notifying visitors about the enhancements I put on my site. For example, I want visitors to sign my guestbook or fill out my survey Form E-mailer to answer questions about my site, my business, or my site's topic.

Need some extra help building your site? Here are some topics that may be helpful.

PUblish

Publishing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A printing press in Kabul, Afghanistan

Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information〞the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning: originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content.

Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources, such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, websites, blogs, video games and the like.

Publishing includes the stages of the development, acquisition, copyediting, graphic design, production 每 printing (and its electronic equivalents), and marketing and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software and other works dealing with information, including the electronic media.

Publication is also important as a legal concept:

  1. As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy;
  2. As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation; that is, the alleged libel must have been published, and
  3. For copyright purposes, where there is a difference in the protection of published and unpublished works.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] The process of publishing

Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of their time buying or commissioning copy; newspaper publishers, by contrast, usually hire their own staff to produce copy, although they may also employ freelance journalists, called stringers. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers.

For works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, and the majority come from previously unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts, then the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review. The acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process is dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication. Unsolicited submissions have a very low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive.[1]

Many book publishing companies around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent. This shifts the burden on assessing and developing writers out of the publishing company and onto the literary agents. At these companies, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage.

Established authors are often represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of author earnings (varying between 10 - 15 per cent) to pay for their services.

Some writers follow a non-standard route to publication. For example, this may include bloggers who have attracted large readerships producing a book based on their websites, books based on Internet memes, instant "celebrities" such as Joe the Plumber, retiring sports figures and in general anyone whom a publisher feels could produce a marketable book. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter.

For a submission to reach publication it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title. An editor who discovers or champions a book that subsequently becomes a best-seller may find their own reputation enhanced as a result of their success.

[edit] Acceptance and negotiation

Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of intellectual property rights and agree on royalty rates.

The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed (i.e. the rights match the legal systems under which copyright protections can be enforced). In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the intended formats of publication 〞 mass-market paperback, "trade" paperback and hardback are the most common options.

The situation is slightly more complex, if electronic formatting is to be used. Where distribution is to be by CD-ROM or other physical media, there is no reason to treat this form differently from a paper format, and a national copyright is an acceptable approach. But the possibility of Internet download without the ability to restrict physical distribution within national boundaries presents legal problems that are usually solved by selling language or translation rights rather than national rights. Thus, Internet access across the European Union is relatively open because of the laws forbidding discrimination based on nationality, but the fact of publication in, say, France, limits the target market to those who read French.

Having agreed on the scope of the publication and the formats, the parties in a book agreement must then agree on royalty rates, the percentage of the gross retail price that will be paid to the author, and the advance payment. This is difficult because the publisher must estimate the potential sales in each market and balance projected revenue against production costs. Royalties usually range between 10-12% of recommended retail price. An advance is usually 1/3 of first print run total royalties. For example, if a book has a print run of 5000 copies and will be sold at $14.95 and the author receives 10% royalties, the total sum payable to the author, if all copies are sold is $7475 (10% x $14.95 x 5000). The advance in this instance would roughly be $2490. Advances vary greatly between books, with established authors commanding large advances.

[edit] Pre-production stages

Although listed as distinct stages, parts of these occur concurrently. As editing of text progresses, front cover design and initial layout takes place and sales and marketing of the book begins.

Editorial stage

A decision is taken to publish a work, and the technical legal issues resolved, the author may be asked to improve the quality of the work through rewriting or smaller changes, and the staff will edit the work. Publishers may maintain a house style, and staff will copy edit to ensure that the work matches the style and grammatical requirements of each market. Editors often choose or refine titles and headlines. Editing may also involve structural changes and requests for more information. Some publishers employ fact checkers, particularly regarding non-fiction works.

Design stage

When a final text is agreed upon, the next phase is design. This may include artwork being commissioned or confirmation of layout. In publishing, the word "art" also indicates photographs. This process prepares the work for printing through processes such as typesetting, dust jacket composition, specification of paper quality, binding method and casing, and proofreading.

The type of book being produced determines the amount of design required. For standard fiction titles, design is usually restricted to typography and cover design. For books containing illustrations or images, design takes on a much larger role in laying out how the page looks, how chapters begin and end, colours, typography, cover design and ancillary materials such as posters, catalogue images and other sales materials. Non-fiction illustrated titles are the most design intensive books, requiring extensive use of images and illustrations, captions, typography and a deep involvement and consideration of the reader experience.

The activities of typesetting, page layout, the production of negatives, plates from the negatives and, for hardbacks, the preparation of brasses for the spine legend and imprint are now all computerized. Prepress computerization evolved mainly in about the last twenty years of the 20th century. If the work is to be distributed electronically, the final files are saved as formats appropriate to the target operating systems of the hardware used for reading. These may include PDF files.

Sales and marketing stage

The sales and marketing stage is closely intertwined with the editorial process. As front cover images are produced or chapters are edited, sales people may start talking about the book with their customers to build early interest. Publishing companies often produce advanced information sheets that may be sent to customers or overseas publishers to gauge possible sales. As early interest is measured, this information feeds back through the editorial process and may affect the formatting of the book and the strategy employed to sell it. For example, if interest from foreign publishers is high, co-publishing deals may be established whereby publishers share printing costs in producing large print runs thereby lowering the per-unit cost of the books. Conversely, if initial feedback is not strong, the print-run of the book may be reduced, the marketing budget cut or, in some cases, the book is dropped from publication altogether.

[edit] Printing

When editing and design work are completed, the printing phase begins. The first step is the creation of a pre-press proof, which is sent for final checking and sign-off by the publisher. This proof shows the book precisely as it will appear once printed and is the final opportunity for the publisher to find and correct any errors. Some printing companies use electronic proofs rather than printed proofs. Once the proofs have been approved by the publisher, printing〞the physical production of the published work〞begins.

A new printing process is printing on demand. The book is written, edited, and designed as usual, but it is not printed until the publisher receives an order for the book from a customer. This procedure ensures low costs for storage, and reduces the likelihood of printing more books than will be sold.

[edit] Distribution

The final stage in publication is making the product available to the public, usually by offering it for sale. In previous centuries, an author was frequently also his own editor, printer, and bookseller, but these functions are usually separated now. Once a book, newspaper, or other publication is printed, the publisher may use a variety of channels to distribute it. Books are most commonly sold through booksellers and other retailers. Newspapers and magazines are typically sold directly by the publisher to subscribers, and then distributed either through the postal system or by newspaper carriers. Periodicals are also frequently sold through newsagents and vending machines.

Within the book industry, some copies of the finished book are often flown to publishers as sample copies to aid sales or to be sent for pre-release reviews. The remaining books often travel from the printing facility via sea freight. As such, the delay between the approval of the pre-press proof and the arrival of books in warehouse, much less in a retail store, can be some months. For books that are tied into movie release dates (particularly children's films), publishers will arrange books to arrive in store up to two months prior to the movie release to build interest in the movie.

[edit] Publishing as a business

Derided in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica as "a purely commercial affair" that cared more about profits than about literary quality,[2] publishing is fundamentally a business, with a need for the expenses of creating, producing, and distributing a book or other publication not to exceed the income derived from its sale.

The publisher usually controls the advertising and other marketing tasks, but may subcontract various aspects of the process to specialist publisher marketing agencies. In many companies, editing, proofreading, layout, design and other aspects of the production process are done by freelancers.[3][4]

Dedicated in-house salespeople are sometimes replaced by companies who specialize in sales to bookshops, wholesalers and chain stores for a fee. This trend is accelerating as retail book chains and supermarkets have centralized their buying.

If the entire process up to the stage of printing is handled by an outside company or individuals, and then sold to the publishing company, it is known as book packaging. This is a common strategy between smaller publishers in different territorial markets where the company that first buys the intellectual property rights then sells a package to other publishers and gains an immediate return on capital invested. Indeed, the first publisher will often print sufficient copies for all markets and thereby get the maximum quantity efficiency on the print run for all.

Some businesses maximize their profit margins through vertical integration; book publishing is not one of them. Although newspaper and magazine companies still often own printing presses and binderies, book publishers rarely do. Similarly, the trade usually sells the finished products through a distributor who stores and distributes the publisher's wares for a percentage fee or sells on a sale or return basis.

The advent of the Internet has therefore posed an interesting question that challenges publishers, distributors and retailers. In 2005, Amazon.com announced its purchase of Booksurge and selfsanepublishing, a major print on demand operation. This is probably intended as a preliminary move towards establishing an Amazon imprint. One of the largest bookseller chains, Barnes & Noble, already runs its own successful imprint with both new titles and classics 〞 hardback editions of out-of-print former best sellers. Similarly, Ingram Industries, parent company of Ingram Book Group (a leading US book wholesaler), now includes its own print-on-demand division called Lightning Source. Among publishers, Simon & Schuster recently announced that it will start selling its backlist titles directly to consumers through its website.[citation needed]

Book clubs are almost entirely direct-to-retail, and niche publishers pursue a mixed strategy to sell through all available outlets 〞 their output is insignificant to the major booksellers, so lost revenue poses no threat to the traditional symbiotic relationships between the four activities of printing, publishing, distribution and retail.

[edit] Industry sub-divisions

[edit] Newspaper publishing

Newspapers are regularly scheduled publications that present recent news, typically on a type of inexpensive paper called newsprint. Most newspapers are primarily sold to subscribers or are distributed as advertising-supported free newspapers. About one-third of publishers in the United States are newspaper publishers.[5]

[edit] Periodical publishing

Nominally, periodical publishing involves publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. Newspapers and magazines are both periodicals, but within the industry, the periodical publishing is frequently considered a separate branch that includes magazines and even academic journals, but not newspapers.[5] About one-third of publishers in the United States publish periodicals (not including newspapers).[5]

[edit] Book publishing

Book publishers represent less than a sixth of the publishers in the United States.[5] Most books are published by a small number of very large book publishers, but thousands of smaller book publishers exist. Many small- and medium-sized book publishers specialize in a specific area. Additionally, thousands of authors have created their own publishing companies, and self-published their own works.

Within the book publishing industry, the publisher of record for a book is the entity in whose name the book's ISBN is registered. The publisher of record may or may not be the actual publisher.

[edit] Directory publishing

Directory publishing is a specialized genre within the publishing industry. These publishers produce mailing lists, telephone books, and other types of directories.[5] With the advent of the Internet, many of these directories are now online.

[edit] Academic publishing

Academic publishers are typically either book or periodical publishers that have specialized in academic subjects. Some, like university presses, are owned by scholarly institutions. Others are commercial businesses that focus on academic subjects.

The development of the printing press represented a revolution for communicating the latest hypotheses and research results to the academic community and supplemented what a scholar could do personally. But this improvement in the efficiency of communication created a challenge for libraries, which have had to accommodate the weight and volume of literature.

One of the key functions that academic publishers provide is to manage the process of peer review. Their role is to facilitate the impartial assessment of research and this vital role is not one that has yet been usurped, even with the advent of social networking and online document sharing.

Today, publishing academic journals and textbooks is a large part of an international industry. Critics claim that standardised accounting and profit-oriented policies have displaced the publishing ideal of providing access to all. In contrast to the commercial model, there is non-profit publishing, where the publishing organization is either organised specifically for the purpose of publishing, such as a university press, or is one of the functions of an organisation such as a medical charity, founded to achieve specific practical goals. An alternative approach to the corporate model is open access, the online distribution of individual articles and academic journals without charge to readers and libraries. The pioneers of Open Access journals are BioMed Central and the Public Library of Science (PLoS). Many commercial publishers are experimenting with hybrid models where older articles or government funded articles are made free, and newer articles are available as part of a subscription or individual article purchase.

[edit] Tie-in publishing

Technically, radio, television, cinemas, VCDs and DVDs, music systems, games, computer hardware and mobile telephony publish information to their audiences. Indeed, the marketing of a major film often includes a novelization, a graphic novel or comic version, the soundtrack album, a game, model, toys and endless promotional publications.

Some of the major publishers have entire divisions devoted to a single franchise, e.g. Ballantine Del Rey Lucasbooks has the exclusive rights to Star Wars in the United States; Random House UK (Bertelsmann)/Century LucasBooks holds the same rights in the United Kingdom. The game industry self-publishes through BL Publishing/Black Library (Warhammer) and Wizards of the Coast (Dragonlance, Forgotten Realms, etc.). The BBC has its own publishing division that does very well with long-running series such as Doctor Who. These multimedia works are cross-marketed aggressively and sales frequently outperform the average stand-alone published work, making them a focus of corporate interest.[6]

[edit] Independent publishing alternatives

Writers in a specialized field or with a narrower appeal have found smaller alternatives to the mass market in the form of small presses and self-publishing. More recently, these options include print on demand and ebook format. These publishing alternatives provide an avenue for authors who believe that mainstream publishing will not meet their needs or who are in a position to make more money from direct sales than they could from bookstore sales, such as popular speakers who sell books after speeches. Authors are more readily published by this means due to the much lower costs involved.

[edit] Recent developments

The 21st century has brought a number of new technological changes to the publishing industry. These changes include e-books, print on demand and accessible publishing. E-books have been quickly growing in availability since 2005. Google, Amazon.com and Sony have been leaders in working with publishers and libraries to digitize books. As of early 2011 Amazon's Kindle reading device is a significant force in the market, along with the Apple iPad and the Nook from Barnes & Noble.[citation needed]

The ability to quickly and cost effectively Print on Demand has meant that publishers no longer have to store books at warehouses, if the book is in low or unknown demand. This is a huge advantage to small publishers who can now operate without large overheads and large publishers who can now cost effectively sell their backlisted items.

Accessible publishing uses the digitization of books to mark up books into XML and then produces multiple formats from this to sell to consumers, often targeting those with difficulty reading. Formats include a variety larger print sizes, specialized print formats for dyslexia,[7] eye tracking problems and macular degeneration, as well as Braille, DAISY, Audiobooks and e-books.[8]

Green publishing means adapting the publishing process to minimise environmental impact. One example of this is the concept of on demand printing, using digital or print-on-demand technology. This cuts down the need to ship books since they are manufactured close to the customer on a just-in-time basis.[9]

A further development is the growth of on-line publishing where no physical books are produced. The ebook is created by the author and uploaded to a website from where it can be downloaded and read by anyone.

[edit] Standardization

Refer to the ISO divisions of ICS 01.140.40 and 35.240.30 for further information.[10][11]

[edit] Legal issues

Publication is the distribution of copies or content to the public.[12][13] The Berne Convention requires that this only be done with the consent of the copyright holder, which is initially always the author.[12] In the Universal Copyright Convention, "publication" is defined in article VI as "the reproduction in tangible form and the general distribution to the public of copies of a work from which it can be read or otherwise visually perceived."[13]

In providing a work to the general public, the publisher takes responsibility for the publication in a way that a mere printer or a shopkeeper does not. For example, publishers may face charges of defamation, if they produce and distribute libelous material to the public, even if the libel was written by another person.

[edit] Privishing

Privishing is an industry term for publishing a book in such a small amount, or with such lack of marketing, advertising, or sales support from the publisher, that the book effectively does not reach the public.[14] The book, whilst nominally published, is almost impossible to obtain through normal channels such as bookshops, often cannot be special-ordered and will have a notable lack of support from its publisher, including refusals to reprint the title. A book that is privished may be referred to as "killed". Depending on the motivation, privishing may constitute breach of contract, censorship,[15] or good business practice (e.g., not printing more books than the publisher believes will sell in a reasonable length of time).

[edit] See also

General:

Print media in India

Indian print media is one of the largest print media in the world. The history of it started in 1780, with the publication of the Bengal Gazette from Calcutta.

Contents

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[edit] History

James Augustus Hickey is considered as the "father of Indian press" as he started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the Calcutta General Advertise or the Bengal Gazette in January, 1780. In 1789, the first newspaper from Bombay, the Bombay Herald appeared, followed by the Bombay Courier next year (this newspaper was later amalgamated with the Times of India in 1861).

The first newspaper in an Indian language was the Samachar Darpan in Bengali. The first issue of this daily was published from the Serampore Mission Press on May 23, 1818. In the same year, Ganga Kishore Bhattacharya started publishing another newspaper in Bengali, the Bengal Gazetti. On July 1, 1822 the first Gujarati newspaper the Bombay Samachar was published from Bombay, which is still existant. The first Hindi newspaper, the Oodunt Marthand began in 1826. Since then, the prominent Indian languages in which papers have grown over the years are Hindi, Marathi, Malayalam, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Oriya, Assamese, Urdu and Bengali.[1]

The Indian language papers have taken over the English press as per the latest NRS survey of newspapers. The main reasons being the marketing strategy followed by the regional papers, beginning with Eenadu, a telugu daily started by Ramoji Rao who fradulently pumped in soo much money into his media empire which he got for supporting the 2 CM's of Andhra ,ntr & chandrababu[citation needed]. The second reason being the growing literacy rate. Increase in the literacy rate has direct positive effect on the rise of circulation of the regional papers. The people are first educated in their mother tongue as per their state in which they live for e.g. students in Maharashtra are compulsory taught Marathi language and hence they are educated in their state language and the first thing a literate person does is read papers and gain knowledge and hence higher the literacy rate in a state the sales of the dominating regional paper in that state rises.

The next reason being localisation of news. Indian regional papers have several editions for a particular State for complete localisation of news for the reader to connect with the paper. Malayala Manorama has about 10 editions in Kerala itself and five outside Kerala and two abroad (Bahrain and Dubai). Thus regional papers aim at providing localised news for their readers. Even Advertisers saw the huge potential of the regional paper market, partly due to their own research and more due to the efforts of the regional papers to make the advertisers aware of the huge market.

[edit] Metrics

Newspapers in India are measured on two parameters, circulation and readership.

[edit] Circulation

Circulation is certified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations which is an industry body. It audits the paid-for circulation of the member newspaper companies.

[edit] Readership

Readership is estimated by two different surveys, The Indian Readership Survey (IRS) and the National Readership Survey (NRS).

This is a list of the top 30 newspapers in India by daily circulation. These figures are mainly compiled by the Indian Readership Survey (IRS). The data given represents readership in lakhs (hundreds of thousands) and NOT circulation figures.

∣Newspaper∣Language∣City, State∣IRS 2009 R2 (Lakhs)[2]∣IRS 2010 Q3 (Lakhs)[3]∣Owner∣
1Dainik Jagran
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HindiVarious cities and states160.96159.50Jagaran Prakashan Ltd.
2Dainik Bhaskar
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HindiVarious cities and states128.8134.88DB Corp Ltd.
3Hindustan Dainik
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HindiVarious cities and states93.36108.39Hindustan Media Ventures Limited
4Malayala Manorama
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MalayalamVarious cities in Kerala and a few other cities91.8399.27Malayala Manorama Group
5Amar Ujala
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HindiVarious cities and states82.9985.83Amar Ujala Publications Ltd.
6Lokmat
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MarathiMarathi, Maharashtra71.0478.09Lokmat Newspapers Pvt. Ltd.
7The Times of IndiaEnglishMumbai and other cities[4]71.4272.54Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.
8Dina Thanthi
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TamilVarious cities in Tamil Nadu and a few other cities75.1772.45Founded by S. P. Adithanar
9Rajasthan PatrikaHindiRajasthan64.8672.17
10The HinduEnglishChennai and other cities21.6921.05Kasturi & Sons Ltd.
11Eenadu
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TeluguVarious cities in Andhra Pradesh and few other cities62.2461.61Ramoji Group
12Deccan ChronicleEnglishHyderabad11.5210.78Deccan Chronicle Holdings Ltd.
13Ananda Bazar Patrika
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BengaliKolkata, West Bengal64.7462.77Ananda Publishers
14Sakshi
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TeluguVarious cities in Andhra Pradesh and major cities in India45.5648.16Jagati Publications Ltd.
15Vijaya Karnataka
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KannadaVarious cities in Karnataka and major cities in India32.7334.30Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.
16Hindustan TimesEnglishNew Delhi33.4735.17HT Media Ltd
17Mathrubhumi
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MalayalamVarious cities in Kerala and a few other cities66.7866.78Mathrubhumi Group
18Gujarat Samachar
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GujaratiAhmedabad, Gujarat52.0952.49Lok Prakashan Ltd.
19Punjab Kesari
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HindiPunjab, Harayana34.2534.99Founder Jagat Narain was assassinated by militants on September 9, 1981
20Dinakaran
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TamilVarious cities in Tamil Nadu and a few other cities52.7148.61Kal Publications
21Sakaal
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MarathiVarious cities in Maharashtra38.6746.39Sakal Media Group
22The Economic TimesEnglishMumbai and other cities7.577.98Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.
23The TelegraphEnglishKolkata11.511.97Ananda Publishers
24The New Indian ExpressEnglishVarious cities and states5.635.06Express Publications Ltd.
25Navbharat TimesHindi23.6625.32Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.
26Nai Dunia
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Hindivarious cities of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, and Delhi11.8715.54Nai Dunia Media Pvt. Ltd
27Prabhat KhabarHindiBihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal-14.65Prabhat Khabar Neutral Publishing House Ltd.
28Hari Bhoomi
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HindiChattisgarh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi12.7714.58Haribhoomi Communications Pvt Ltd.
29Prajavani
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KannadaVarious cities in Karnataka and major cities in India25.6529.20The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited
30Divya Bhaskar
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GujaratiGujarat, Maharashtra-36.03DB Corp ltd.